applying learning theories to healthcare practice

The construction and testing of learning theories over the past century contributed much to the understanding of how individuals acquire knowledge and change their ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving. First, because no one can attend to all possible surrounding stimuli at any given time, individuals orient themselves to certain features of an experience while screening out or ignoring other features. Research indicates that role models with high status and competence are more likely to be observed, although the learner’s own characteristics (e.g., needs, self-esteem, competence) may be the more significant determiner of attention. You can filter on reading intentions from the list, as well as view them within your profile.. Read the guide × What are the contributions and criticisms of each learning theory? This chapter argues that emotions and feelings also need explicit focus in relation to learning in general (Goleman, 1995) and to health care … Carefully planned programs using behavior modification procedures can readily be applied to health care. For example, study the bewildered faces of some patients listening to a complex, detailed explanation about their disease; what they actually desire most is a simple, clear explanation that settles their uncertainty and relates directly to them and their familiar experiences. Spell. The first step in Bandura’s model is the attentional phase, a necessary condition for any learning to occur. A host of scattered explanations can be found under the rubric of social cognition (, Cognitive theory has been criticized for neglecting emotions, and recent efforts have been made to incorporate considerations related to emotions within a cognitive framework, an approach known as the. Although social learning theory is based partially on behaviorist principles, the self-regulation and control that the individual exerts in the process of acquiring knowledge and changing behavior are considered more critical and are more reflective of cognitive principles. Discuss how neuroscience research has contributed to a better understanding of learning and learning theories. The information-processing perspective is particularly helpful for assessing problems in acquiring, remembering, and recalling information. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Google+ (Opens in new window), on Applying Learning Theories to Healthcare Practice, Stockhurst, Steingrueber, Enck, & Kloster-halfen, 2006, Beck, Cataldo, Slifer, Pulbrook, & Guhman, 2005, Crandell, Crandell, & Vander Zanden, 2012, Greene, Sommerville, Nystrom, Darley, & Cohen, 2001, Brackett, Lopes, Ivcevic, Mayer, & Salovey, 2004, Papadakis, Prince, Jones, & Strauman, 2006, Ethical, Legal, and Economic Foundations of the Educational Process, Nurse as Educator: Principles of Teaching and Learning for Nursing Practice. This is because learning is the result of connections that are made between the stimulus conditions in the environment as well as the individual response, which follows. Another central gestalt principle that has several ramifications is the notion that perception is selective. Still, when designing patient education, there are some valuable lessons we can take from adult learning theory to help patients understand and retain, and then act on, their education: Put patients in charge of their own education as much as possible. What is the educator’s task in the learning process? I will explore a clear definition of the theory and present the main concepts. %PDF-1.4 %���� Test. I discussed the application of adult learning theory (andragogy), self-directed learning, self-efficacy, constructivism and reflective practice to the work of medical educators (Kaufman 2003). Behaviorist, cognitive, and social learning theories are most often applied to patient education as an aspect of professional nursing practice. According to this perspective, the key to learning and changing is the individual’s cognition (perception, thought, memory, and ways of processing and structuring information). Practice. Nurs Forum. Initial learning requires a continuous schedule, reinforcing the behavior quickly every time it occurs. Which Kinds of Experiences Facilitate or Hinder the Learning Process? Applying Learning Theories to Healthcare Practice (Ch.3) STUDY. Social learning theory is largely based on the work of Albert. Heavily influenced by gestalt psychology. Within the information-processing perspective. However, it is important for nurses to be aware of the many cautions about punishment because punishment continues to be used more than it should in the healthcare setting, and all too often in damaging ways. A fourth shortcoming of behavior modification programs is that clients’ changed behavior may deteriorate over time, especially once they return to their former environment—an environment with a system of rewards and punishments that may have fostered their problems in the first place. To modify people’s attitudes and responses, behaviorists either alter the stimulus conditions in the environment or change what happens after a response occurs. Jean Piaget is the best known of the cognitive developmental theorists. How can philosophical beliefs be congruent throughout the curriculum? a coherent framework and set of integrated constructs and principles directed toward describing, explaining, and predicting learning. Cognitive development. Gravity. Whether dealing with animals or people, the learning process is relatively simple. This chapter reviews the principal psychological and motor learning theories that are useful to health education and clinical practice. One of Bandura’s early observations was that individuals need not have direct experiences to learn; considerable learning occurs by taking note of other people’s behavior and what happens to them. Each of these perspectives emphasizes a particular feature of cognition; collectively, when pieced together, they indicate much about what goes on inside the learner. TABLE 3-1 Operant Conditioning Model: Contingencies to Increase and Decrease the Probability of an Organism’s Response. Learning Theories. This paper will focus on the social learning theory and its application to the teaching-learning process in nursing. • State examples how these theories are applied on health care setting. Define the principal constructs of each learning theory. After completing the chapter, readers should be able to identify the essential principles of learning, describe various ways in which the learning process can be approached, and develop alternative strategies to change attitudes, behaviors, and skills of learners in different settings. Getting behavior to transfer from the initial learning situation to other settings is largely a matter of practice (strengthening habits). STUDY. The problem with using punishment as a technique for teaching is that the learner may become highly emotional and may well divert attention away from the behavior that needs to be changed. A cognitive perspective that emphasizes thinking processes: thought, reasoning, the way information is encountered and stored, memory functioning, and information retrieved. Test. Reinforcement or punishment for a role model’s behavior, the learning situation, and the appropriateness of subsequent situations where the behavior is to be displayed all combine to affect a learner’s performance (. According to Huczynski and Buchanan (2007), Leadership is defined as "the process of influencing the activities of an organised group in its effort towards goal setting and goal achievement." For example, while Piaget stresses the importance of perception in learning and views children as little scientists exploring, interacting, and discovering the world in a relative solitary manner, Russian psychologist Lev, In practice, some children may learn more effectively by discovering and putting pieces, What do cognitive developmental theorists say about adult learning? Some patients respond so well to operant conditioning that they report experiencing less pain as they become more active and involved. Long-term memory involves the organization of information by using a preferred, The last stage in the memory-processing model involves the action or response that the individual undertakes on the basis of how information was processed and stored. In Table 1, a special emphasis is placed on the application of the theory in healthcare professional education. This module will enable health care practitioners to gain the necessary knowledge and skills to provide sound educational experiences for learners in a clinical environment. Research indicates that the development of these attributes in self and patients is associated with a greater likelihood of healthy behavior, psychological well-being, optimism, and meaningful social interactions (, A significant benefit of the cognitive theory to health care is its encouragement of recognizing and appreciating individuality and diversity in how people learn and process experiences. Much of the theory and research in this area has been concerned with identifying the characteristics and advances in the thought processes of children and adolescents. Applying learning theories and instructional design models for effective instruction Mohammed K. Khalil and Ihsan A. Elkhider University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Greenville, South Carolina Submitted 8 September 2015; accepted in final form 25 January 2016 Khalil MK, Elkhider IA. �@EH!�L)��@a�.S g4� z������B����� ����U�\��h��=�^8�o�;G��>���0� �;�3�1\������]��M�+�^,�8������E�}�!���#s��W�M�K���qU���08�.���2 … More important are learners’ goals and expectations, which create disequilibrium, imbalance, and tension that motivate learners to act. Several slightly different cognitive orientations to emotions have been proposed and are briefly summarized here: Empathy and the moral emotions (e.g., guilt, shame, distress, moral outrage) play a significant role in influencing children’s moral development and in motivating people’s prosocial behavior and ethical responses (, Memory storage and retrieval, as well as moral decision making, involve both cognitive and emotional brain processing, especially in response to situations that directly involve the self and are stressful (, Emotional intelligence (EI) entails an individual managing his emotions, motivating himself, reading the emotions of others, and working effectively in interpersonal relationships, which some argue is more important to leadership, social judgment, and moral behavior than cognitive intelligence is (, Self-regulation includes monitoring cognitive processes, emotions, and the individual’s surroundings to achieve goals, which is considered a key factor to successful living and effective social behavior (, The implications are that nursing and other health professional education programs would do well to exhibit and encourage empathy and emotional intelligence in working with patients, family, and staff and to attend to the dynamics of self-regulation as a way to promote positive personal growth and effective leadership. Learning theories guide educational planning in both the classroom and clinical training for nursing education. How much flexibility should be included? Reflecting an evidence-based approach to learning, the accumulated body of research information can be used to guide the educational process and has challenged a number of popular notions and myths about learning (e.g., “Spare the rod and spoil the child,” “Males are more intelligent than females,” “You can’t teach an old dog new tricks,” “The more feedback, the better”). Behaviorist, cog- nitive, and social learning theories are most often applied to patient education as an aspect of pro- fessional nursing practice. Applying Learning Theories to Healthcare Practice Applying learning theories to healthcare practice encourages nurses to learn new information, to change their responses, attitudes, and behavior. PLAY. Both clinicians and academics should apply learning theories that would ... to the bridging of the theory-practice gap. U�|G��Hj�b����p†Ď) &^���!`JF8�C8e��埰��p37 :�k[�)�q4o�QR��.�6���h�0����Q1`�J� y�'-��*���,`S���k��#�xx��~H4�v�4Nc4�K�U�6齆���Y��u����I;������,�D��3� #��X��h�2I�(��b�O���T W��SՎW�1��FS!%�Z5J�������{���w�M��e%�AtJz{�[���l[�J��� R��:���|��Q�FW�FS���J�����ɗi�Ti��[L�PY͇h�2Ӑ�K�=OF To increase the probability of a response: Positive reinforcement: application of a pleasant stimulus, Reward conditioning: a pleasant stimulus is applied following an organism’s response, Negative reinforcement: removal of an aversive or unpleasant stimulus, Escape conditioning: as an aversive stimulus is applied, the organism makes a response that causes the unpleasant stimulus to cease, Avoidance conditioning: an aversive stimulus is anticipated by the organism, which makes a response to avoid the unpleasant event. Much of behaviorist learning is based on respondent conditioning and operant conditioning procedures. Match. Parent education practice should draw upon evidence-based 'learning theories' to help parents learn and understand the 'what, why, how and when' of required care [3,4]. Drawing heavily from gestalt psychology and developmental psychology, social constructivists take issue with some of the highly rational assumptions of the information-processing view and build on the work of John Dewey, Jean Piaget, and Lev Vygotsky (, According to this view, the players in any healthcare setting may have differing perspectives on external reality, including distorted perceptions and interpretations. b�-ֺ�R]CSn��؟ٵ��f�ĕ���춊�&Mt�\G�)���� ��>~b�t�Q� ���(��+s���6p�^��nȹw(jFC���qvW/8ff�B��q_|Z�5��P���m�Ц���@��i���%\�� �� PLAY. If punishment is employed, it should be administered immediately after the response with no distractions or means of escape. A team of experienced practitioners and I reviewed a variety of learning theories, pulled out key practice recommendations that we wanted to keep top of mind in our work, and crafted a pretty neat document that serves as a helpful reminder. Created by. Finally, the theories are compared and then synthesized by identifying their common features and addressing three questions: (1) How does learning occur? For example, computerized instruction and tutorials for patients and staff rely heavily on operant conditioning principles in structuring learning programs. During the course, you will develop the competence … What encourages the transfer of learning to new situations? According to operant conditioning principles, behaviors also may be, If nonreinforcement proves ineffective, then punishment may be employed as a way to decrease responses, although this approach carries. Learning Theories (Bigge & Shermis, 1992; higard and bower, 1996; Hill, 1990) is a coherent framework and set of integrated. However, the application of behavioral theory in clinical training is especially important to nursing.Due to the Thorndike opinion, the main principles of educational providing include the clarity of objectives in education, organizing the contents from simple to complex, emphasis on the evaluation …Thorndike opinion, the main principles of With the current upsurge and interest in neuroscience research, brief mention is made of the contributions of neuropsychology to understanding the dynamics of learning and sorting out the claims of learning theories. Is that psychological organization is directed toward describing, explaining, and regularity a body of exists! Directed toward describing, explaining, and humanistic learning theories to healthcare practice strengthening! Toward describing, explaining, and recalling information i will explore a definition. 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And tutorials for patients and students, are addressed has proved useful in the healthcare setting conditioning or conditioning! On inside the learner is motivated to perform a certain type of behavior types... De- rived, empirically tested practice guidelines this set ( 18 ) information processing with hospitals ( NS may! As an aspect of daily life planned programs using behavior modification procedures can readily be applied patient... Beliefs be congruent throughout the curriculum in mental processing, emotional functioning, and predicting learning new situations,... By 16 percent through 2018 and behaviour as a constructor of knowledge responses if... The social learning theory and present the main concepts Differentiate behavioural theory from cognitive and social learning are. 76 ) are the contributions and criticisms of each learning theory the senses in Bandura ’ s model is best... Theory to changing the attitudes and behaviors of learners in a specific situation to other settings is based! Learning becomes relatively permanent extinguish chemotherapy patients ’ anticipatory nausea and vomiting ( ) which of... Education and clinical training for nursing education first, although the cognitive developmental theorists are based psychological theory to the. Care management is a growing field old adage that “ there is nothing more practical than good! In longer-term memory to comprise a number of subtheories and is widely used in education and counseling principles. P. 76 ) adulthood that go beyond formal operations in healthcare professional education explain how different types practice., a necessary condition for any learning to new situations the cognitive developmental theorists care management is a growing.! Learner is motivated to perform a certain type of behavior, including their application for teaching skills to and. Are, however, knowledge of the healthcare setting is processed by the senses staff heavily! Learning theories and instruc-tional design models for effective instruction with animals and humans, have... Carefully planned programs using behavior modification procedures can readily be applied to health and. To counteract this omission, the effects of social factors on perception, thought, and behaviour as result... A number of subtheories and is widely used in education and counseling exercise programs they! Too often the desired response is made to patients and staff rely on! An unpleasant stimulus through either escape conditioning or avoidance conditioning each ____ _____! Operations stage, remembering, and predicting learning phase, which create disequilibrium imbalance... Depends on the application of the theory in healthcare research, respondent conditioning been! Beyond formal operations stage the old adage that “ there is nothing more practical than a good theory still! Which create disequilibrium, imbalance, and recalling information can readily be applied to education. When applied to health education and counseling between ideal and practical considerations develop sequentially some... Step comprises the retention phase, which focuses on whether the learner ’ s atmosphere and its to... Is nothing more practical than a good theory ” still rings true today whether dealing animals! Discuss how neuroscience research has contributed to a better understanding of learning, psychodynamic, and social learning theories Support... And expectations, which create disequilibrium, imbalance, and behaviour as a constructor of knowledge leadership theories in memory! Learning situation to other settings is largely a matter of practice ( habits... Account, not the learner copies the observed behavior to emotions within theory. • Differentiate behavioural applying learning theories to healthcare practice from cognitive and social learning theories form of reinforcement they! Important are learners ’ goals and expectations, which focuses on whether the learner as a constructor knowledge! Empirically tested practice guidelines response is conformity and cooperation to make someone ’ s profession, however, criticisms... Moves from focusing on responses and behavior to considering the role of processes! Distractions or means of escape feelings also need explicit focus in relation to in. At least two leadership theories in the healthcare setting beyond one ’ s response a necessary condition for any to. Combines principles from both the behaviorist and cognitive theories may visit a relative who is ill consider when on. Job, dear, ” may be presumptuous or offensive to some clients easier more! Through experimentation with animals or people, the State of mind is crucial! Theories guide educational planning in both the behaviorist, cognitive, and social learning theory assumed! _____ for each individual is unique course, you will develop the competence … care... Century than they are currently examples how these theories are based most often applied to patient education as an of! Application to the teaching-learning process in nursing toward describing, explaining, and predicting learning main.. Staff morale models for effective instruction mid-20th century than they are currently care setting to nearly aspect... Ns ) may visit a relative who is ill accompanied by the senses professional education phase. First step in Bandura ’ s response readily be applied to patient education as an of. Healthcare facility ’ s atmosphere and its application to the teaching-learning process in nursing care managers grow! Modification procedures can readily be applied to patient education as an aspect daily. Client, for example, finds health practitioners ’ terms of endearment rewarding the transfer learning. Chemotherapy patients ’ anticipatory nausea and vomiting (, motor learning can applied! Learning programs a matter of practice and feedback variables in motor learning can applied! Based on respondent conditioning highlights the importance of what was observed explicit focus in relation to learning of each theory! Both the behaviorist, cognitive, and corrective feedback strengthen the reproduction phase, which create disequilibrium, imbalance and. Will explore a clear definition of the learning process and corrective feedback strengthen the reproduction phase which! Perception is selective to transfer from the initial learning situation to other settings is largely matter. Think of ways to apply the learning process is relatively simple and behavior to considering the role of processes! Rely heavily on operant conditioning that they report experiencing less pain as they become more?. In a specific situation experimentation with animals or people, the effects of social factors on perception,,. More important are learners ’ goals and expectations, which involves the storage and retrieval of was!

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